Effect of seasonal malaria chemoprevention on the acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in Ouelessebougou, Mali.

18 Jul 2017
Mahamar A, Issiaka D, Barry A, Attaher O, Dembele AB, Traore T, Sissoko A, Keita S, Diarra BS, Narum DL, Duffy PE, Dicko A, Fried M


Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a new strategy to reduce malaria burden in young children in Sahelian countries. It consists of the administration of full treatment courses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine to children at monthly intervals during the malaria season. However, it is not clear if there is a cumulative effect of SMC over time on acquisition of antibodies to malaria antigens.


A cross-sectional serosurvey was carried out 1 month after the last dose of SMC in 2016. Children aged 3-4 years were randomly selected from areas where SMC was given for 1, 2 or 3 years during the malaria season. Children in the areas where SMC had been implemented for 1 year but who failed to receive SMC were used as comparison group. Antibody extracted from dry blood spots was used to measure IgG levels to CSP, MSP-1 and AMA1.


The prevalence of antibodies to AMA-1 were high and similar in children who received SMC for 1, 2 or 3 years and also when compared to those who never received SMC (96.3 vs 97.5%, adjusted OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.33-2.97, p = 0.99). The prevalence of antibodies to MSP-1 and to CSP were similar in children that received SMC for 1, 2 or 3 years, but were lower in these children compared to those who did not receive SMC (87.1 vs 91.2%, adjusted OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.01, p = 0.05 for MSP-1; 79.8 vs 89.2%, adjusted OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.30-0.90, p = 0.019 for CSP).


SMC reduced seropositivity to MSP-1 and CSP, but the duration of SMC did not further reduce seropositivity. Exposure to SMC did not reduce the seropositivity to AMA1.